Chemical oxidants have been applied in water treatment for more than a century, first as disinfectants and later to abate inorganic and organic contaminants. The challenge of oxidative abatement of organic micropollutants is the formation of transformation products with unknown (eco)toxicological consequences. Four aspects need to be considered for oxidative micropollutant abatement: (i) Reaction kinetics, controlling the efficiency of the process, (ii) mechanisms of transformation product formation, (iii) extent of formation of disinfection byproducts from the matrix, (iv) oxidation induced biological effects, resulting from transformation products and/or disinfection byproducts. It is impossible to test all the thousands of organic micropollutants in the urban water cycle experimentally to assess potential adverse outcomes of an oxidation. Rather, we need multidisciplinary and automated knowledge-based systems, which couple predictions of kinetics, transformation and disinfection byproducts and their toxicological consequences to assess the overall benefits of oxidation processes. A wide range of oxidation processes has been developed in the last decades with a recent focus on novel electricity-driven oxidation processes. To evaluate these processes, they have to be compared to established benchmark ozone- and UV-based oxidation processes by considering the energy demands, economics, the feasibilty, and the integration into future water treatment systems.