Water plays a determining role in the Alpine region: it represents untouched nature, sensitive ecosystems, and a resource that can be used in many different ways. These natural and utilitarian values are being threatened or destroyed by one-sided and intensive use. The alpine regions are, therefore, challenged to manage their water resources in a sustainable manner. At the same time, it is essential that interests are coordinated across national boundaries. Millions of people live along European rivers and depend on these alpine water resources. In light of predicted global warming, international cooperation is becoming ever more important.