During the last 50 years, Rilem was continuously active in pre-standardization efforts aiming at gradually improving scientific and technological testing and analysis methods for refined understanding and characterization of bituminous binders and asphalt, both under well-defined laboratory and performance driven in-field conditions. This paper intends to highlight and provide a short overview on the international activities of Rilem’s to date 18 technical committees (TC) on asphalt and bituminous binders. After some general background information, underlining the specific complexity of asphalt pavement materials in terms of rheological behavior and basic structural functioning, it is shown that these activities resulted in numerous recommendations, state of the art reports and conference proceedings, all produced on a voluntary basis by scientific and technical commitment of individual experts. This wealth of results was created by the TCs following an own systematic methodology for many years which, at the end of the day, allowed building up activities through the new TCs of today in a much more specialized but at the same time also more diverse way. In view of this new flexibility and keeping in mind the previous success story of Rilem towards improved testing of asphalt pavements, future developments, challenges and interdisciplinary issues regarding bituminous road materials are outlined as potential starting point for future TC initiatives.