Lothenbach, B., Nied, D., L'Hôpital, E., Achiedo, G., & Dauzères, A. (2015). Magnesium and calcium silicate hydrates. Cement and Concrete Research, 77, 60-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.06.007
The structure and chemistry of magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H) is significantly different from calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), although both phases are poorly crystalline and have a variable chemical composition. The molar Ca/Si ratio in synthetic C-S-H varies from approximately 0.7 to 1.5 and the Mg/Si ratio in M-S-H from 0.7 to 1.3. In M-S-H silica sheets are present, while the silica in C-S-H is organized in single chains. In addition, M-S-H contains more chemically bound water than C-S-H. Analyses of synthetic samples containing both magnesium and calcium with a total (Mg + Ca)/Si of 0.8 indicate the formation of separate M-S-H and C-S-H gels with no or very little uptake of magnesium in C-S-H or calcium in M-S-H. The clear difference in the silica structure and the difference in ionic radius of Ca2 + and Mg2 + make the formation of an extended solid solution between M-S-H and C-S-H gel improbable.