It is recognized that the use of a single plan calculated on an image acquired some time before the treatment is generally insufficient to accurately represent the daily dose to the target and to the organs at risk. This is particularly true for protons, due to the physical finite range. Although this characteristic enables the generation of steep dose gradients, which is essential for highly conformal radiotherapy, it also tightens the dependency of the delivered dose to the range accuracy. In particular, the use of an outdated patient anatomy is one of the most significant sources of range inaccuracy, thus affecting the quality of the planned dose distribution. A plan should be ideally adapted as soon as anatomical variations occur, ideally online. In this review, we describe in detail the different steps of the adaptive workflow and discuss the challenges and corresponding state-of-the art developments in particular for an online adaptive strategy.