Rebetez, M., Reinhard, M., & Buttler, A. (2004). Forests, tree physiology and climate. In J. Burley (Ed.), Encyclopedia of forest sciences (pp. 1644-1655). https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-145160-7/00114-9
Climate can be defined as the long-term integration of atmospheric parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind, insulation, air humidity, or snow cover. It is one of the key factors conditioning the growth of vegetation and it is impossible to dissociate the history of forests, and all flora and fauna, from the history of the earth’s climate. Climate controls vegetation patterns and dynamics and, conversely, vegetation also influences the climate. These relationships occur over different spatial and temporal scales. This article reviews the main aspects of the relationship between climate parameters and forests while the impacts of climate change and environment on forests as well as tree physiology and stress are covered in other articles within this publication.