This paper describes principles of modern forest management in mountain areas, which have been gaining recognition in Switzerland in the last decades. Mountain forests differ remarkably from lowland forests with respect to structure, dynamics, functions and management. The economic situation has worsened, knowledge of ecology has grown and the demands placed on forests have changed. In order to meet the demand for multiple use, mountain forests must be given specially adapted silvicultural treatment. The following methods are proposed: to profit from natural processes in forest regeneration, to establish micro-site conditions for forest regeneration, to implement cluster plantation, to enable natural dynamics to occur after a disturbance, to enhance structural diversity, to reduce costs by minimising interventions.