Swiss forest enterprises are finding it increasingly difficult to fulfill the demands on the forest economically. The problem is complex. To address it, we analyzed this situation from the points of view of production, industrial and new institutional economics. Swiss forest enterprises are multi-product firms. They are usually publicly owned and aim to provide crucial ecosystem services for the economy in the form of private and public goods that are mostly closely connected with the production of wood. Providing these goods can be made more efficient, especially by adopting organizational measures involving cooperation and information technologies. Another more difficult but necessary measure is to ensure the required public goods are paid for. No incentives, market-like structures or tools for this have yet been introduced. This paper is a plea for providing public goods under private-sector conditions, changing management structures accordingly, even reducing the demands on the forest and developing market-based mechanisms for paying for the public goods.